The future king had been displaying mild symptoms but remains in “good health” after being diagnosed with the bug on Monday night.
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Camilla, 72, tested negative for the virus, with the couple now self-isolating at their home in Balmoral, Scotland.
It is believed he suffered mild symptoms over the weekend while at Highgrove House in Gloucester and flew privately to Scotland on Sunday night where he was tested on Monday.
It is understood he is in good spirits and remains up and about.
Buckingham Palace has since confirmed the Queen remains in “good health” after heading to Windsor last Thursday with Prince Philip a week earlier than planned.
Charles most recently saw the Queen “briefly” on March 12.
Medical experts believe the earliest Charles would have been contagious was March 13.
Charles has also spoken to both of his sons, Prince William, 37, in Norfolk and Prince Harry, 35, in Canada after the news.
Confirming the news today, Clarence House said: “The Prince of Wales has tested positive for Coronavirus.
“He has been displaying mild symptoms but otherwise remains in good health and has been working from home throughout the last few days as usual.”
Another six members of staff now isolating with them.
Clarence House added: “In accordance with Government and medical advice, the Prince and the Duchess are now self-isolating at home in Scotland.
“The tests were carried out by the NHS in Aberdeenshire where they met the criteria required for testing.
“It is not possible to ascertain from whom the Prince caught the virus owing to the high number of engagements he carried out in his public role during recent weeks.”
The royal met with Prince Albert of Monaco, who later tested positive for coronavirus, on March 10.
Charles saw the Queen “briefly” two days later on March 12, before his last public appearance at an event for the bushfires affected Australia.
A source said: “He has displayed mild symptoms he is in good spirits.
“He is working and continuing to work for the last few days as usual.
“Medical advice is that it is unlikely that his condition will not escalate into a more serious case here on.”
The Prince had been avoiding shaking hands with members of the public at a number of events recently, instead choosing to use the namaste gesture.
He last appeared in public with the Queen, along with princes William and Harry and other senior royals, at the Commonwealth Service at Westminster Abbey on March 9.
A spokesman for Buckingham Palace said: “Her Majesty the Queen remains in good health.
“The Queen last saw the Prince of Wales briefly after the investiture on the morning of the 12th March and is following all the appropriate advice with regard to her welfare.”
They will not comment on whether the Queen has been tested for coronavirus.
Prince William remains in Norfolk meaning the heirs to the throne are not in physical contact.