Ko za a iya koyon karatu da launuka?

launiHakkin mallakar hotoILYA S. SAVENOK

Olympia Colizoli ba yarda kuke ganin duniya take gani ba.

“A gareni, daukacin lokaci da lambobi suna jere ne a sararin bayyanai suke. Kwanaki da makonni da watanni da shekaru da karnoni duk suna da fasali (siffofi), kuma ina amfani da wadannan siffofi wajen tsara ayyukan kwakwalwata,” in ji ta.

“Na dauki tsawon lokaci kafin in fahimci cewa sauran mutane ba haka suke tunani ba.”

Colizoli, kwararriyar a fannin nazarin kimiyyar ayyukan sakonnin kwakwalwa.

Wasu mutane da ke cikin irin wannan yanayin suna ganin launuka ko shakar kamshi da wari lokacin da suke karanta kalmomi.

A yanayin Colizoli kuwa, lambobi na da fadi da tsawo, ko siffofi da sauran al’amura da ke bayyane a sarari.

Alal misali, shekarun mutane a kan nuna su a matsayin tankwararrun zane-zane.

Sannan ta yi nazarin haduwar kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari/kamshi da ake yi wa lakabi a kimiyyance da “Synaesthesia” a Jami’ar Amsterdam, saboda zakuwar son sanin ko an haifeta ne tattare da irin wannan yanayi, ko kuma ta dan kwaikwaya ne.

Idan har za ka iya nusar da kanka ganin duniya ta irin wannan hanya, tabbas za ta iya bunkasa fasahar kirkire-kirkirenka.

Mashahuran masu tattara ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da-kamshi wadanda aka ruwaito cewa sun hada da Pharrell Williams wanda ke ganin kida a matsayin launi (wanda ya bayyana wa Oprah a shirinta na O Magazinehe bai zai iya yin kade-kade ba, ba tare da la’akari da hakan ba).

Da kwararren mai lissafin matsayin al’amura da dangan akar makamashi na Fiziya Richard Feynman, wanda ke ganin haruffa da aka gwamna a lissafi tamkar launuka, har ta kai ga kimanta matsayin huldar al’amura ta sa an karrama shi da lambar yabo ta Nobel.

Ko akwai yiwuwar mutum ya horar da kansa shiga irin wnanan yanayi don yi wa duniya wata sabuwar fahimta, wato gwama ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da-kamshi?

Idan kuwa haka ne, shin tasirin lamarin zai kasance daidai da na wadanda irin wannan hali ya bijiro musu a matsayin halittarsu?

Mawaki Pharrell Williams da ya yi ikirarin cewa haduwar ayyukan ji-da-gani-da-shakar-wari-da-kamshi na taimaka masa wajen kirkira.

A fannin likitanci Gustav Fechner ne ya fara tattara bayanai kan haduwar ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar-wari-da-kamshi a shekarar 1812.

Kuma tun daga lokacin aka kiyasta wadanda ke tattare da irin wannan yanayin a tsakanin 1 cikin mutum 2,000 da 1 a cikin mutum 23.

launiHakkin mallakar hotoPURVI JOSHI

Matsalar da ake samu wajen sanin yawan mutanen da ke samun kansu a cikin yanayin haduwar ayyukan ji-da-gani-da-shakar-wari-da-kamshi shi ne tamkar na Colizoli, mutane da dama ba su fahimci cewa yaddda suke ganin duniya ya sha bamban da na sauran mutane.

Kai hatta bayanin ma’anar gwamuwar ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar-wari-da-kamshi na da sarkakiya saboda yadda mutane kan samu kansu a yanayin ya sha bamban.

Tabbatar da cewa mutum ya cancanci zama mai gwama ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar-wari-da-kamshi na bukatar fahimtar kai da jajircewa da aikin kai-tsaye.

Wannan ne ke bambance su daga masu rudun tunani, a cewar Colizoli, saboda masu gwamna haduwar kafofin ayyukan ji-da-gani-da-shakar-wari-da-kamshi suna sane da cewa duniyarsu ta launi da kamshi ko wari ba ta “gaske ba ce.”

Babu wani da ke da tabbaci abin da ke haifar da haduwar ayyukan ji-da-gani-da-shakar-wari-da-kamshi, kodayake al’amari ne da ke karade zuri’a.

Colizoli ta yi nuni da cewa idan ka samu mutum guda da ke cikin irin wannan yanayi tasirin abin akwai yiwuwar ya kai ga wani daga cikin zuri’a, wanda zai kawo rahoton irin wadannan alamomi.

Irin wannan ake kira da bunkasar haduwar ayyukan ji-da-gani-da-shakar-wari-da-kamshi, kuma ta sha bamban da tawayar raunin haduwar ayyukan ji-da-gani-da-shakar-wari-da-kamshi.

Al’amarin da ke haifar da gurbatar kwakwalwa – kamar misalin mutumin da ya samu shanyewar gabobin jiki ta barin hagu ke cusa masa nishdin ganin fim din James Bond ba kakkautawa.

Gwamuwar ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da shaker -wari-da-kamshi ya fi bayyana ga masu dukum da matsalar hulda da mutane, amma a matsayin gungu ba a cikin samun masu gwama ayyukan ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da-kamshi a cikin masu du kuma da matsalar mu’amala, fiye da a cikiun daukacin al’umma.

Akwai hujjojin da suka bayyana cewa za a iya koyon wasu al’amura na gwama ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar-wari-da-kamshi.

A wani bincike da Colizoli da abokan aikinta suka gudanar a Jami’ar Amsterdam, an bai wa mutanen da ba sa gwama ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar-wari-da-kamshi litattafai su karanta inda aka yi wa haruffan e, t, a da s launi, sauran rubutun kuwa aka bar shi baki.

Duk da cewa sun karanta rubutun yadda yake (ba tare da kokarin tuna launukan ba), wadanda aka gudanar da binciken a kansu sai suka fara danganta haruffan da launinsu.

Colizoli ta gudanar da gwaji akawan wadanda aka bibiyi kadin lamarinsu ta hanyar walkata musu haruffan, inda ta rika tambayarsu su fada mata launi da harafin da aka rubuta.

Idan an rubuta wani harafi a launi na daban a littafi, yakan dauki lokaci kafin wadanda aka yi gwanin binciken a kansu su gano – wannan tsaikon fahimta ana yi mata lakabi da katsalandan a tunani (Stroop Effect).

Duk da cewa ba su rika ganin launukan ba, alamu sun nuna sun fara juya tunaninsu tamkar na masu halittar gwama ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da-kamshi.

Sai dai tasirin na wucin gadi ne.

“Sun manta da launin harafi bayan wasu watanni,” a cewar Colizoli.

“Kuma ba su kawo rahoton ganin launi tattare da bakaken haruffa lokacin da suke karatu.”

Tabbatacciyar hadda

Halittar gwamuwar ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da-kamshi babu abin da ya nuna ana iya koyonta, sai dai a wani lokaci tuna wani al’amarin ka iya tankwarata.

Colizoli ta tuna wata mata wadda ta gano cewa kowane harafi na da launi na daban.

Wata rana sai ta ziyarci ajin makarantar Elamantare, inda ta hango haruffa masu haske rataye a bango, wanda suka daidai da yadda ta ga launukan a wajen koyon karatu da rubutu, ta yi wu ba tare da ta an kara ba kwakwalwarta ta dauke siffar haruffan.

Kuma a shekarar da ta wuce, a yi wani bincike kan masu dabi’ar gwama ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da kamshi 11, inda aka gano cewa muhimman launukan da suke danganta haruffa sun yi “iri guda ne matuka gaya” daidai da mashahurin maganadisun haruffan rukunin Firijin Fisher Price wadanda aka rika sayarwa a tsakanin shekarun 1972 zuwa 1989.

Goma daga mutanen sun tuna cewa sun taba mallakar irin na’urar, shi kuwa 11 ya sha gaban biliyan ga kowane daya a jerin hade-haden launuka 14 da ke da alaka da nau’ukan maganadisun firji.

Duk da cewa wadannan mutane sun damfaru da gwmaa ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da-kamshi sanadiyyar kwayoyin halittarsu, haka kuma za su iya bayyana idan an koya tun daga yarinta.

launiHakkin mallakar hotoTHINK STOCK

Tabbas akwai dimbin al’amura tattare da gwama ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da-kamshi fiye tuno yarinta, ko kuma mutanen da ke Yammacin Turai su fara danganta harafin ‘M’ da launin dorawa kai McDonald ma ya saukaka al’amura da tambarinsa mai launin zinare.

Mene ne dalilin da gwammuwar launuka ke da tushe a tattare da wasu mutane, amma a sauran har yanzu lamarin na tattare da sarkakiya.

Ko ta yaya dai, wanda ke sha’awar gwama ayyukan ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da-kamshi su tuna cewa launi da haduwar kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da kamshi a wani lokaci na haifar da matsala.

Colizoli ta kwatanta yadda wani yaro da ta hadu da shi yake shan wahala wajen yin karatu, saboda rubutun da ke littafin baki ne da launi mai haske, al’amarin da ke haifar masa da matsalar yin karatu a kan farar takarda.

Haka kuma lambobi masu launi na haifar da rudani.

Lambobi biyu na da launuka masu alaka da juna ta yiwu hadewar da aka yi musu ta hanyar da launin ba zai bayar da wata ma’ana ba, ta yadda sakamakon tara lamba mai launin ja da lamba mai launin dorawa ba zai zama lamba mai launin hasken dorawa ba.

“Gaba daya abin da na fahimta shi ne lamarin zai fi rikitar da yara da manya,” in ji Colizoli.

“Ina da tabbacin cewa manya kan bullo da dabarun tunkarar lamarin.”

Na tambayi Colizoli ko tana jin cewa yadda take baje lambobi a sarari ya taimaka ko kawo cikas ya yi a aikin na kwararriya a fannin kimiyya.

“Na karanci lissafi a digirina na farko, a kodayaushe nakan baje lambobi,” a cewarta.

“Sai dai yanayi ne na yadda kaza takan yi kwan nan haka ma kwan yakan yi kaza. Ko digirin lissafi ya taimake ni wajen sarrrafa lambobi, ko kuwa sabanin haka lamarin yake? Lamarin ne mai wuyar fadi.”

Masana kimiyya kamar Colizoli har yanzu ba su gano yawan kwayoyin halitta da ke ta tasirin haifar da gwama ayyukan kafofin jni-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da-kamshi da yawan yadda akle koyo.

Duk da cewa mutumin da yake sakaka zai yi ta kokarin horar da kwakwalwarsa don gwama ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da-kamshi tamkar wadanda lamarin yake dabi’ar halitta tattare da su, akwai wata hujja mai ban mamaki da ke nuni da cewa alamun yanayin za a iya samunsu, ko da na wucin gadi ne.

Don haka idan kana jin cewa rashin iya gwama ayyukan kafofin ji-da-gani-da-shakar wari-da-kamshi na tauyeka ko kawo maka cikas wajen kirkira, ta yiwu a samu mafita idan ka yi kokarin rubuta dabarunka da alkaluma masu launi ko kuma maganadisun firijin yara.

BBC Hausa

Post Author: Hassan Usman

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