Ta yaya za a bambance mutuwa da dogon suma?

Man lying on floorHakkin mallakar hotoGETTY IMAGES

A kashi na biyu, mun cigaba da duba yadda masana ilimin kiwon lafiya da kwararrun kimiyyar lafiya ke kara samun fahimtar yadda za a iya farfado da wadanda suke fama da ciwon bugun zuciya da kuma yadda za a iya ceto ran wadanda ake zaton su mutu bayan wani lokaci mai tsawo.

Fahimtar at biyo bayan bincike mai tsawo da aka yi akan dubban marasa lafiya a asibitocin Amurka da sauran sassan duniya.

A halin da ake ciki, likitoci sun fara fahimtar cewa daina numfashi ba shi ne alamar mutuwa ba, kuma kwakwalwa da sassan jiki na ci gaba da rayuwa bayn numfashi ya dauke.

Iyakar illa

Kaimin zuciya da bijiro da numfashi sabon fanni ne, sai dai kwararru sun ce akwai sauran matsalolin da za a tunkara.

Misali, babu wasu ka’idojin kimiyya da suka yanke lokacin da za a daina yin kaimin zuciya da numfashi ga wani mara lafiya. Ayyukan da aka gudanar yanzu na nuni da “bambanci mai tayar da hankali” a cewar Becker a wata tattaunawa da aka gudanar a Cibiyar Kimiyya ta New York.

Binciken shekara ta 2012 ta bi kadin ayyukan da ake gudanarwa a asibitoci 435 na Amurka.

A nazarin da aka gudanar a wurare fiye da 64,000, marubuta sun gano cewa mafi yawan likitoci sukan daina kokarin aiki ne da zarar marasa lafiya ya ki motsawa bayan mintuna 20. “Idan likita ya daina kokarin ceton rai, mara lafiya zai mutu murus,” in ji Pamia.

Binciken da za a ci gaba kan fasahar kere-kere da hanyoyin aiwatar da aiki za su bullo da sababbin dabaru.

Abella na ganin cewa hanyar kaimi ta al’ada, alal misali na bukatar a sake inganta ta. Fasahar kaimi ta CPR ta taimaki miliyoyin mutane, amma tana aiki ne na bai daya a wajen dannar kirji sau 100 kowane minti ba tare da la’akari da mara lafiyar ba.

Binciken Abella da abokan aikinsa na nuni da cewa ayyukan ceton rai za su inganta ne idan aka kara yawan aikin daban-daban bisa la’akari da irin marasa lafiyar, tamkar dai yadda ake auna yawan magani.

Rukunin Parnia da sauransu na kokarin bullo da abin da ya kira “tsarin tantance wuraren da marasa lafiya ke samun kyakkyawar kulawa.”

Dabarar ana yi mata lakabi da ma’aunin kewayawar oxygen a kwakwalwa (cerebral oximetry), ta hanyar amfani da tartsatsin maganadisun-lantarki da zai kutsa cikin kai ya bibiyi yadda oxygen ke shiga kwakwalwa a kowace bugawar zuciya ko dannar kirji.

Baya ga kawar da zafin jiki, masu bincike na kokarin hana kwayoyin halitta mutuwa. “Za a yi ta gano muhimman al’amura a shekaru masu zuwa kan yadda sasan jiki ke da alakar rayuwa da mutuwa,” acewar Abella.

Dabara guda ta juya akalar lamarin ita ce samar da maganin hana mutuwar kwayar halitta ko tsara mutuwar kwayar halittar.

Wasu masu binciken na aikin shawo kan lalacewar ta hanyar amfani da maganin da zai dumfari kwayoyin halittar bubugowar makamashi. Sauran gungun na kokarin tokare sinadaran jiki da ke kashe kwayoyin halitta, wadanda ke datse abincin ‘protein.’

A wani gwajin berayen da aka hana su shakar numfashi na minti 10, sannan aka ba su sinadrin ‘calpain’ kwanyarsu ba ta tabu ba kamar wadanda aka bai wa makwafin maganin.

“Muna da masaniya kan yadda kwayoyin halitta ke mutuwa,” in ji Pamia. “Matsalarmu ita ce yadda za mu shawo kan lamarin.” Idan wannan tsarin ya bayyana karara, ya yi hasashen kirkiro maganin da zai tare hanyoyi, ta yadda za a iya amfani da shi duk lokacin da bukatar gaugawa ta bijiro, ko da a lokacin mutuwa ne, har a isa asibiti.

“Zan iya yin allura don toshe hanyoyi (sinadaran jiki), ta yadda kwayoyin halittar kwakwalwa za su tarwatse,” inji shi. “Daga nan sai in sumar da kai, in kai ka asibiti, ta yadda cikin sa’a’o’i za ka iya farfadowa.”

Wadanda suka tsira kamar Conrad na bukatar tarairayar jiki da jijiyoyin kai sakonnin kwakwalwa, al’amarin da ake aiki kansa zuwa yanzu- zai zama dole a yi shi.

Mantuwar da wadanda suka tsira ke fama da ita, kamar yadda ta faru ga Conrad.

Da farfadowarsa ya dauka shekara ta 2010 ake ciki. Ya yi aure watanni biyu kafin hadarin da ya yi, duk da cewa ya tuna matarsa, bai tuna abin da ya faru lokacin aurensu ba. Bayan kwanaki tunaninsa ya fara dawowa. Abella ta yi nuni da cewa sabuwar matsala kan bijiro lokacin da yake cikin annashuwa. Mutanen da ke kokarin gyagijewa bayan farfadowarsu da tuni sun mutu shekara 10 baya.

Kamar yadda Conrad ya nuna “sa’a ce kawai” ya samu wannan tarairayar ceton rai, don haka ya gode wa matarsa. Kungiyar masu kula da ciwon zuciya ta Amurka da Majalisar Kaimin farfadowa ta Turai da ire-ren su a qasashen Canada da Austiraliya da New Zealand sun wallafa kundin hadin gwiwa da ke bayanin dabarun kaimin farfadowa na zamani a tsakanin shekaraun 2008 zuwa 2010 da aka yi a asibitoci da dama.

“Wannan ita ce babbar matsala – ba a aiwatar da dabarun da aka sani na zamani,” inji shi. “Mafi yawan wurare suna yin aikin karni na 20 sabanin kaimin farfadowar karni na 21.” Pamia ya ce za a samu karuwar wadanda ke rayuwa da kashi 50 cikin 100.

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Ambulance in front of hospitalHakkin mallakar hotoGETTY IMAGES

Babbar matsala

Duk makurar da kimiyya ta kai ba za ta taba cimma yanayin Frankenstein ba.

Dangane da kwayoyin halittar gawa da aka ceto bayan kwana 17, wadannan kwayoyin halitta na musamman sun tsira daga kisan mummuken mutuwa. “Nama dai tuni ya lalace gaba daya,” a cewar Fabric Chretien, Farfesan nazarin kwayoyin halitta a Jami’ar Descartes, kuma babban marubuci kan aikin kwayoyin halitta na musamman.

“Ba za ka iya farfado da majiyaci ba, ba za ka iya kwayoyin halittarsa ko dashen sassansa ba,” kamar yadda ya jadadda. “Ina magana ne kawai akan wata kwayar halitta ta musamman.”

“Muna matukar son ganin mun yi kaimin farfado da wadanda suka fadi a mace kwatsam cikin ‘yan mintuna ko sa’a’o’i,” in ji Abella.

“Ba na sha’awar dawo da matace a raye, kuma a tunanina hakan ba zai yiwu ba.”

Ciwon bugun zuciya na bijiro wa wanda ke tattare da matsaloli, wadanda suka hada ciwon zuciya da ciwon sugar; alfanun kadan ne a ce an farfado da mai cutar daji da ta ki ci, ta ki cinye ya rayu, sai ma a sake azabtar da su da wata mutuwar a sa’o’i ko kwanaki.

Matukar ba a samu maganin kawar da kowace cuta ko rauni ko sauran cututtukan da ke kisa ba, kaimin farfadowa kawai zai dan tsagaita zuwa makomar dole na wani lokaci ne. Ko da lafiyayyen mutum kamar Conrad an farfado da shi daga gargarar mutuwa, tabbas wata rana zai mutu. “A bayyane yake karara akwai yanayin da aikin ba zai yi tasiri ba,” inji Pamia.

Conrad na jin dadin rayuwar da ya dawo yan yi a yanzu. Abella da sauran likitoci ba su gano abin da ke haifar wa Conrad bugun zuciya ba, amma matakin da aka dauka shi ne an makala masa na’urar kaimin bugun zuciya (defibrillator) a kirji.

Har yanzu bai yi amfani da ita ba. Yana jin dadin aurensa, ya ci gaba da aiki da hawa keke. “Na ci gaba da tashi garau kowace rana, in yi murmushi na dakika guda, ” in ji shi. “Idan cunkoson ababen hawa ya tare ni, sai in ji babu damuwa, tun da ya fi kyau in rika numfashi a nan da in daina yi kwata-kwata.

Conrad na halartar tarurruka kara wa juna sani kan yadda za a shawo kan rashin dumin jiki, inda ya yi wa likitoci jawabi kan abubuwan ya rika ji. “Akwai gwaraza irin su Dokta Abella a asibitoci daban-daban a daukacin kasar nan da ke kokarin daga daraja wannan aiki,” inji shi. “Ina karfafa gwiwarsu, don su ci gaba aiki, saboda yana da matukar tasiri.”

BBC Hausa

Post Author: Hassan Usman

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